Improved High Yielding Cultures of Maize
RCM 1-1: It is a semi-flint yellow kernel maize. Its average kernel yield is 55-60 q/ha, matures in 120-125 days and attains height of 220 cm during crop season. It has stable yield performance over years. It can be used for intercropping with ricebean and soybean
RCM 1-2: It is a pop corn with 95 % popping capacity. It yields 35-40 q/ha, marginally lower than other improved cultivars. The profitability of maize cultivation can be substantially improved by growing pop corn, which commands 2-3 times higher price. It mature in 110 days and attains a height of 175 cm during kharif season. It is characterized by flint, yellow and small seed in long cylindrical ear exhibiting a prolificacy of 1.3 under good management conditions.
RCM 1-3: It is a semi flint, white kernel maize. Its average kernel yield is 60-65 q/ha, matures in 125 days and attains a height of 225 cm. It has stable performance in varying plant density and intercropping with soybean and ricebean.
All the three varieties developed at ICAR Research Complex namely RCM 1-1, RCM1-2 and RCM 1-3 suitable for low (below 800 msl), medium (800-1300 msl) and high (> 1300msl) altitude. Vijay Composite is also suitable for low and medium altitude.
High Yielding Cultures of Important Oil Seed and Pulse Crops
Rapeseed and mustard
RC Composite I: This is in pipeline. A composite variety developed from selected line of germplasm from the region. It has productivity of 1.2 t/ha
H1: It is a high yielding variety with productivity of 3-3.5 t/ha. It is a determinant type with yellow seed, black hilum and high germinibility. It matures in 110 days and is resistant to Frog eye leaf spot.
H10: It is another high yielding variety with productivity of 3-3.5 t/ha. It is a determinant type with yellow seed, black hilum and high germinibility. It matures in 115 days and is resistant to Frog eye leaf spot.
|Varieties||Days to maturity||Yield (q/ha)||Special features|
|RCRB 6||95-120||19-23||It is a selection from local cultivar of Meghalaya. Indeterminate, attains 2 m height during its maturity, with 3-4 branches having 7 to 9 seeds per pod, photosensitive, suitable for mid altitude.|
|RBL 1||100-130||15-18||Indeterminate, photosensitive, suitable for mid altitude.|
|MNPL 1||90-130||13-16||Indeterminate, photosensitive, suitable for mid altitude.|
|PRR1||80-120||10-12||Determinate, early maturing, less photosensitive, small grain.|
|MNPL 2||100-150||9-10||Determinate, photosensitive, bold grain|
|PISRB 7||100-110 (spring) 85-90 (Kharif)||8-10||Photoinsensitive and can be cultivated in both kharif and spring seasons|
|Variety||Altitude||Maturity (days)||Grain yield (q/ha)|
|L 4147||Mid and low||120-130||8-10|
|PL 639||Mid and low||125-130||8-10|
|PL 4||Mid and low||125-130||7-8|
|Pant L 406||Low||135-140||14-15|
|LH 84—8 (Sapana)||Low||135-140||14-15|
Optimal/ Enriched Compost Technology
Materials Required Per Ton of Organic Waste
- Organic waste: paddy straw, leaf litters, water hyacinth, weeds and grasses, pruning materials, twigs, shredded news papers and fresh Azolla
- Animal excreta: fresh cow dung @ 100-200 kg per ton of organic waste
- Rock phosphate@ 10-100 kg depending upon the P requirement
- Microbial inoculants: CDM 1kg, PSB 1kg, N2 fixers
Methodology: Pit Method For Aerobic Composting
- Prepare a pit measuring 3.5m x 0.75m x 0.30m (L x B x H)
- Line the bottom of the pit with thick polythene sheet
- Spread a thin layer of woody materials such as twigs, prunes, shredded papers etc
- Spread a thick layer (10cm) of green materials over the bottom layer
- Put next 10 cm layer with brown materials such as straw, weeds etc.over the green materials to maintain the desired C/N ratio. Sprinkle cow dung slurry over the brown materials
- Repeat the process of alternate layering with green and brown materials ( 10 cm each) and sprinkling of cow dung slurry and rock phosphate in each layering till the height of the heap becomes 4 -6 meters.
- Finally over the heap with thin polythene sheet
- For rapid decomposition turn over the heap every after 15 – 20 days with sprinkling of water
- Allow the compost pit to sit for 2 months until the heap turns black/brown in color. By this time almost 80 percent of available materials get decomposed
Curing and Enrichment
- Keep the heap undisturbed for another 15 to 20 days for curing
- At this stage application of CDM will further accelerate the decomposing process
- At this curing stage the C/N ratio stabilizes at 15 – 20 and organic matter content of 8 – 10 percent which is ideal for optimal composting
- The optimal compost can further be enriched by inoculating N2 fixers (Azotobacter/ Azospirillum) and PSB such as Pseudomonas ,Bacillus etc.). The nutrient content of enriched compost (N,P2 O5 K2 O) ranges as
- 1.83%, 1.10% and 0.72%)
Total Package for mandarin orange cultivation in NER
The North Eastern region holds a prestigious place as an Orange basin but the Orchards largely remained neglected bringing down the yield and production. ICAR Research Complex has launched a multi-disciplinary project to investigate the cause and control of this serious malady. The following recommendations have been suggested to overcome citrus decline and maintain good production of orchards.
- Identification of productive mother trees: Mother trees producing more than 1000 fruits/tree should be identified in different states. Seeds for raising seedlings may be collected from fruits of these trees.
- Bud-wood certification: The productive mother trees free from insect pests and diseases should be identified and indexed for greening disease.
- Standardization of root stocks: The entire mandarin orange cultivation in NE Region is based on seedlings which make them susceptible to certain soil borne diseases like Phythopthora sp.causing root rot and foot rot. It is advisable to grow budded plant on standard rootstocks like Rangpur lime and C. Volkamariana.
- Standardization of nutrient doses for declined trees: Application of N 300g,P2 O5 250g and K2O 300g per tree has been found most effective in bringing decline mandarin trees to profitable bearing: Besides, application of micronutrients like Boron, magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese, and calcium as foliar spray twice a year is effective in correcting micronutrient deficiency.
- Nutrient doses for newly established orchard: To raise healthy and productive trees of mandarin, it is essential to apply manure and fertilizer right from planting stage. A gradual increase in doses of manure and fertilizer every year has been found most profitable. The following manorial schedule has been developed to keep the orchard in healthy condition.
Care of plants: To maintain the plants in healthy condition the following operations need regular attention.
- Remove water sprouts from the plants as well as from the rootstock (in case of budded plants) regularly.
- Train the stem without branches up to 30 cm height from the ground level and allow the branches to develop afterwards only.
- Prune dead / diseased and unwanted shoots regularly.
- Avoid deep digging in basins.
- Mulch the basin with paddy straw during dry months to conserve the soil moisture and apply Bordeaux paste on the tree trunks.
- Apply manure and fertilizers as per schedule.
- Remove lichen and mosses regularly.
- Do not cultivate nutrient exhaustive intercrops after the plants have come into fruiting. Weeding and inter-culture operations should be done to keep the orchard floor clean throughout the year
- In case of heavy bearing, the main branches may be supported with suitable stakes. After fruit harvesting, a general pruning of the trees should be undertaken to remove all dead and diseased twigs.